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Global Challenges
Issue no. 4 | October 2018
Epidemia of Walls in an (Un)free World
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Articles for this issue
Global Challenges
Issue no. 4 | October 2018
Epidemia of Walls in an (Un)free World

We currently face a baffling paradox. While since the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 a seemingly inexorable process of globalisation has been foreshadowing a peaceful and frontierless world, the number of walls across the world has been rising at a steady pace. Liberal and open societies buttressed by trade, international law and technological progress were supposed to implacably contribute to the erosion of frontiers and walls between nations. However, in a context of surging populist discourses, securitarian anxieties and identitarian politics as well as concomitant flows of migration alimented by climate change, conflict and poverty, nations have recently started to barricade themselves behind new walls.

Articles for this issue

Epidemia of Walls in an (Un)free World
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    Whither Cosmopolis:
    Yearning for Closure in Times of Uncertainty

    Reading time: 5 min
  • 1
     
    A Palestinian man walks past graffiti painted on Israel's controversial separation barrier in the Aida refugee camp situated inside the West Bank town of Bethlehem, on February 12, 2016. / AFP PHOTO / THOMAS COEX

    A Contagious Craze for Walls

    Reading time: 2 min
  • 2
     
    This is a monument for those who have died attempting to cross the US-Mexican border. Each coffin represents a year and the number of dead. It is a protest against the effects of Operation Guardian. Taken at the Tijuana-San Diego border.

    The “Great Wall” of America:
    Historical Opportunities

    Reading time: 3 min
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    Palestinian boys walk 13 September 2005 past a mural painting on a wall that separates the southern Gaza Strip town of Khan Yunes from the former Jewish settlement of Neve Dekalim. The wall which had been erected by Israeli forces to protect the settlers from Palestinian attacks has been painted by Palestinian artists, following the withdrawal of Israeli troops from the area two days ago.      AFP PHOTO/Roberto SCHMIDT (Photo by ROBERTO SCHMIDT / AFP)

    Between Security and Apartheid:
    Cinematic Representations of the West Bank Wall

    Reading time: 4 min
  • 4
     
    An Indian Border Security Force (BSF) soldier (R) stands alert as a farmer leads her cow alongside border fencing marking the India-Bangladesh border in the village of Jaypur, some 5 kms west of Agartala, 17 November 2006. Security on the Indian side of the border has been intensified following political instability and continuing violence in Bangladesh. The border between the two countries stretches over 4000 kilometers (2500 miles), a considerable part of which is unfenced.   / AFP PHOTO / STRDEL

    Battle of Identities at the India-Bangladesh Border

    Reading time: 5 min
  • 5
     
    Wall built by Turkey on its border with Syria.

    Turkey and the Middle-East:
    From Imperial Temptation to National Closure

    Reading time: 4 min
  • 6
     
    Kenya’s President Uhuru Kenyatta

    Combating Terrorism on the Somalian Border:
    The Improbable Kenyan Dream?

    Reading time: 5 min
  • 7
     
    Concrete Wall, DMZ, North Korea.

    Korea:
    Comfortable Wall, Uncomfortable Peace

    Reading time: 4 min
Other Issues
Issue no. 2 | September 2017
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Democracy at Risk
Global Challenges
Issue no. 2 | September 2017
Democracy at Risk

While the 20th century has been characterised by the generalisation of democratisation processes, the 21st century seems to have started with the reverse trend. An authoritarian-populist nexus is threatening liberal democracy on a global scale, including in its American and European heartlands. Charismatic leaders – thriving on electoral majorities and popular referenda – methodically undermine the rule of law and constitutional safeguards in order to consolidate their own power basis. Coupling inflammatory rhetoric with modern communication technologies, they short-circuit traditional elites and refuse to abide by international norms. Agitating contemporary scourges such as insecurity, loss of identity, mass migration and corrupt elites, they put in place new laws and mechanisms to harness civil society and political opponents. In order to better understand the novelty, permanence and global reach of “illiberal democracy”, this second issue of Global Challenges proposes seven case studies (Russia, Hungary, Turkey, the Middle East, Uganda, Venezuela and the United States) complemented by a series of expert interviews, maps and infographics.

Issue no. 5 | April 2019
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New Grammars of War:
Conflict and Violence in the 21st Century
Global Challenges
Issue no. 5 | April 2019
New Grammars of War: Conflict and Violence in the 21st Century

The Dossier aims to explore new trends and expressions of violence in armed conflict in the 21st century. Taking as a starting point the changing paradigm of armed conflict – from conventional wars with clear contours towards more non-linear, fragmented and protracted types of civil and international conflict — it adopts a broad approach to portray changing forms of violence across different types of armed conflicts (including terrorism, international/civil wars or urban warfare). In the context of a fragmenting international order, with increasingly blurred lines between state and non-state, combatant and civilian, domestic and international, the number of actors involved in conflicts and concurrent strategies of violence have multiplied. In face of the ubiquity of violent conflict — despite an overall decline in interstate conflict and global number of casualties — the Dossier aims to shed light on new or changing forms of violence, their contexts, actors and victims. It explores the novelty, heterogeneity, scales and vectors of violent practices in contemporary conflicts by investigating the impact of a series of factors such as new military technologies (drones, robots), new communication tools (social media), gender, migration, or the subcontracting of security to private actors.